Often called ‘paddle’ clubs or ‘spade’ clubs because of their shape, the clubs are generally said to be Tongan or Samoan in origin, but they were widely used in the islands and coastal parts of Fiji. In combat, the blow was very much struck with the thin edges of the head cutting through bone like an axe rather than smashing and shattering it. The name culacula may well be drawn from the resemblance of the wings which run out on either side of the blade to the spike or protuberances on either side of the shell of the culacula crab. Ref: Fergus Clunie, Fijian Weapons & Warfare, 2003, p.115 This type of club was used as a symbol of high rank and by priests. Collected by Lt. George Phillpotts who fought and died in the Maori wars of New Zealand in 1845.